Developed and sustained by the HOST creator:
Jessica Tangelder and the HOST Board of Experts:
Marjolein Maree, Dick Rüger, Erik-Jan ten Broeke, Rebecca Sampson and Peter Taks
Table of Contents
- Purpose of the HOST Guide
- Definition of HOST
- HOST Theory
- How does HOST work?
- Uses of HOST
- HOST Values
- HOST Roles
- HOST Practices
- HOST Meta-Skills:
● Attitude to Transform
● Design to Transform
● Frame to Transform
● Reflect to Transform
● Strategy to Transform
● Stories to Transform
- HOST Master Certification Sample Design
- HOST Reflection Frameworks
- HOST Case Stories to Transform
- What is next?
- End Note
● Our Story & DNA
1. Purpose of the HOST Guide
The HOST Guide has the purpose to help redesign and humanise leadership and business to make-work-change and make-change-work. To co-create a new market for modern leadership and development that facilitates a human-centered leadership culture with an eye on individual and collective well-being, ongoing innovation, and intercultural collaboration. To help leaders, teams, organisations and societies transform, lead and thrive in increasing volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) work environments.
This HOST guide shares best leadership development practices to empower forward-thinking leaders, influencers and leadership development professionals, who can integrate it into their daily work and life to make change work.
HOST validated change and empowerment practices to help any formal or informal leader unlock the potential form within individuals, teams, organisations and societies. This requires an upgrade in our personal awareness and collective consciousness which you can’t learn from books and needs consistent practice and helps you reinvent yourself to be(come) the better version of you.
Today’s global trends: forward thinking leaders and organisations need to be updated about today’s global challenges urge for change; to highlight three of them; an epidemic in burn- and bore out rates, decrease in business life-cycle and increase in globalisation. What 21st century studies, leadership development frameworks and change practices are out there to help your organisation lead, transform and thrive? With the aim to make evidence-based data more accessible and easier to be addressed on key stakeholders; leaders, influencers and decision makers, agenda’s.
Check out the Global Human-Centered Leadership Trend Report 2019: “The Urge and Opportunities to Humanise Leadership and Drive People, Business, and Societal Transformation.”
Sharing it forward. Read the HOST Manifesto: “Redesigning and Humanising Leadership Development to Make Change Work”, give feedback and/or sign it to help humanise leadership development on all levels: www.HOSTManifesto.org As a means to an end, this Manifesto, could also serve as a tool to generate buy-in within your organisation. Feel free to share the manifesto to inspire more beautiful minds aka drivers of transformation, early adopters and change makers, to make (systemic) change work.
2. Definition of HOST
Our intention of defining HOST is to create a simple and profound understanding of its multi-dimensional functionality to empower you to unlock the potential within others.
With HOST we aim to provide you the minimum structure to accelerate your leadership development practices, career or business and grow your people-business-societal impact. We stay away from fixed formats, methods, models or dogmas that create unnecessary tension and polarities. We rather share what others see in “HOST”, and we have been co-creating and validating “it” over the last 7 years.
HOST practitioners define HOST as a “social technology” that brings clarity on how to transform (designated) leaders, teams, and organisations in a complex tech or non-tech work environment.
Springboard for Leadership Development Innovation
For more human-centered leadership development innovation. We’ve validated HOST across industries and cultures. It serves you as a means to an end and invites you to take the practices and the way of application to the next level. We’re lifelong learners, as long as the world and our contexts are changing, we see new opportunities to tweak and make our application even more powerful.
HOST is often defined to be a “formula” its abbreviation stands for: Human energy + Openness to engage + Shared resources = Transformation. Which one day organically felt in place without overthinking it. It helps practitioners to unlock change from within people, from “the inside-out”, such that people take ownership over their own transformational process, and feel the inner urge to seek for “concepts” that facilitate change from the outside-in.
Universal Human-mechanism for Connectivity
Equips you to trigger a universal human mechanism for interpersonal connectivity, change and transformation. It connects people with themselves and lifts each other to the next level. It raises personal awareness and collective consciousness for people to feel more empowered and agile to embrace uncertainty, chaos, ambiguity, (inner)conflict, and frustration that comes along with transformation.
Practitioners refer to HOST as an open framework that gives them the confidence “that they know what they’re doing” to apply unconventional practices and unlock the potential within individuals, teams, and organisations. Especially for those new in transformational work, it gives them some “grip” to hold on to and to let go of once feeling more confident to create their own (change) practices and toolkit for change.
Is a more technical way to describe the mechanism of HOST. It boosts the “invisible” under-the-ice-berg human assets: mindset and thinking and, therefore, leverages process, product, and business innovations.
Being conscious how to use empowering language is another “tool” to humanise leadership and businesses and move beyond complex and “sticky” transformation processes. We’re co-creating a “HOST Wiki” for language and concepts that helps you to empower yourself and others and drive true transformation.
Roles to Transform
Up-skill your consulting, facilitating, coaching, educating, presenting, training, designing, and leadership. To balance and gear between various roles to unlock the potential in optimal ways.
Philosophy to Transform
A way for you to approach life, work, education and leadership and the language you’ve created around it. You embody the HOST principles that helps you to (un)consciously life them. This happens when you integrate new competences and after a lot of practice you become unconsciously competent. To practice and live what you preach; being aligned with what you think, what you say, what you do and how you feel is transformational; people resonate with your alignment!
DesignToolkit: Treasure Chest to Transform
Hands-on, blended and agile change practices for you to experiment with and merge into your own toolkit for change, leadership and transformation. To create a supportive and safe (online) environment that invites people and teams to lift each other to the next level and transform.
Permission and creating the conditions to Transform
The advantage of naming “HOST” “HOST” is that now you have the permission to empower others while you give them the permission to leave their comfort zone to experience something new. As a means to an end, HOST can create the conditions to enable people to experiment with new ways of how we work, lead, and educate.
Community and Business Ecosystem of Practice
Purpose-driven and talented (emerging) leaders and leadership development professionals eager to grow their impact and work on a deeper level with (formal and informal) leaders, teams, communities, and organisations. Certified or not, associated or not: we champion the freedom of every practitioners to choose their own level of “HOST engagement” to grow their people-business-societal impact in sustainable ways. As a launching-path in their career and/or as a complementary asset for more impact and business. We’ve set the objective to create a HOST business ecosystem where certified HOST practitioners benefit personally, professional as well as in (their) business or organisation.
3. HOST Theory
Making the shift happen
We live in an era where on almost every level we can “sense” rapid change is happening; within economics, family structures, religion, relationships, health care, education, finance, technology etc., everything is interconnected which makes change even more volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA).
Because of this “VUCA” world, it’s not always easy to grasp or to give direction to change, after all, where to steer toward to if the future is uncertain? With HOST we do not aim to “simplify” reality, however, we do give you clarity, focus and the guidance to help people, teams, organisations and societies transform with more ease, joy, and impact.
Universal Mechanism for (Inter)Connectivity
HOST is often defined to be a formula that activates a universal human mechanism for interpersonal connectivity as it connects people with themselves and their (work) environment. Firstly it connects beyond their internal boundaries (structures) – mental blocks such as fears judgment and skepticism – that leads to mutual empowerment for people to lift each other to the next level. Secondly, it connects beyond the external boundaries (structures); continents, educational system, organisational walls, politics, systems, silos, departments, teams, and cultures.
We aim to help (designated) leaders, teams, communities and organisations shift from a system-centered culture for leadership towards a human-centered culture for leadership to transform the way we live, work, educate, and lead in our fast-changing and digital world. To move beyond politics, bureaucracy, silos, models, theories and unconscious bias; limiting beliefs such as fear, judgement, and scepticism.
The HOST Formula
HOST presents a minimal structure for maximal empowerment and innovation. Its simple build-up makes it low threshold, gives you the confidence to empower others in new ways, and makes it more accessible for people to unlock:
HUMAN ENERGY: purpose, vitality and flow. It helps people to connect with themselves, to step out of their mental blocks, their “analytical” mode that often causes paralyses. Psychical movement, laughter, gratefulness, presence and joy, all nourish the mind and people’s wellbeing.
OPENNESS TO ENGAGE: meaning and new perspectives. Openness enables people to empathise with each other it opens up new world views, for people to move beyond unconscious bias and collaborate in inclusive ways.
SHARED RESOURCES: complementary knowledge, networks, and skills. “Colliding-brains” gives organisations the edge to innovate in unexpected ways.
TRANSFORMATION: the potential within people, teams, organisations, and societies. In systemic ways: applicable in any context, anytime and anywhere.
Reflection Frameworks for Inside-out Change
Language and speech can limit us to express how we feel or what we envision. HOST provides various reflection frameworks, powerful visuals that we’ve co-created and validated to create meaningful dialogues that moves beyond jargon and gives insights into our (unconscious) thinking, meaning, values, and emerging needs. To make the invisible visible and connect from a place of collective consciousness with your peers and come up with new insights and perspectives.
During the HOST sessions, we make often make use of a wide variety of visuals we’ve validated over the years. Here you find the HOST reflection frameworks we use on a frequent basis. Rames or see the HOST Reflection Frameworks in the appendix below.
HOST helps you innovate interpersonal, organisational, product and business processes by creating a human-centered culture for transformation by redesigning and humanising leadership development and transformation. To move from system-centered approaches to human-centered approaches such as multi-governance and multi-stakeholder, EQ(emotional intelligence)-based collaboration, exponential learning, communication, transformational-, serving (guided)- and participative leadership.
Legenda “Humanising Leadership and Businesses”: based on the 7 values for human-centered leadership
Multi-stakeholder over Top-down
Leadership means inspiring others with a clear, executable vision where people across organisations can engage with and feel enabled to contribute to from bottom-up. Even more so, it’s important to involve your entire network, and see your organisation as an ecosystem people can relate too.
Transformation over Change
Change is comparing your status-quo with the past in order to make improvement for the near future. This implicitly means that choices of the past influences the future of an organisation. Transformation focuses on the possibility for 180 degree change; may it be to pivot a process, business model, product or organisational structure. To experiment in the new and, based on short feedback loops, integrate learning and development in continuous ways.
Exponential Learning over Linear Learning
Learning from books is a limited way of taking new knowledge in. Learning in self- and group reflective ways is key to obtain complementary knowledge, networks and skills in, in no-time. Demand-based and emerging-knowledge based learning enables you to bridge the gaps and make fast steps to the next level in your learning curve.
EQ & AQ Practice-based over IQ Skill-based learning
Traditional organisations and HR teams mainly focus on fixed job profiles and skills match-making to bridge the gap of that what is perceived to be needed in organisations. Trends, however show, that in 2025 we don’t even know what (emerging) skills will be needed on the market. As we have more opportunities to learn apart, together, and obtain multiple skills, it’s at least as important to invest in rising people’s personal awareness about how they are connected with themselves (their talents, purpose, energy) and their work environment (e.g. new perspectives, behaviour, needs and talents), connectivity as the “glue” to collaborate and align well, to be more agile, and more solution focused in unexpected situations. Role and soft-skill development over fixed job profiling and skill-sets.
Guiding over Monitoring
Instead of checking and micro-managing people’s progress or to assume you have all the answers, it’s way more inspiring and encouraging for people to create their own learning curve, make “mistakes” to learn from and therefor grow as a person, professionals and leader.
Participation over Execution
Today organisations need to become more networked in order to keep up with the fast pace. Therefore organisations become more communities, where people organically share complementary knowledge, networks and skills, where people share their best practices and brilliant failures to create a culture for ongoing learning and development (transformation). This takes time, and a thick skin and patience to overcome times of confusion and chaos. Whatever you do to create a community; participation and involving your team and peers in decision-making and experimentation is key for communities to sustain and lead in an uncertain future.
Human-centered Transformation over System-centered Transformation
We’re all interconnected and when you empower a person from the inside-out, it will have a positive impact on their environment. We connect the dots by unlocking the potential in systemic ways and accelerate personal, interpersonal/team, organisational/community and societal transformation to scale people, business, and societal empowerment.
4. How does HOST work?
Humanising the leadership development landscape
The HOST formula is an open framework that embraces modern complementary change frameworks that emerge in the leadership development market. Even more so, we intend to leverage the best practices of today’s recognised and modern change frameworks through our masterclass series to make sure the HOST practitioners are always a step ahead of their clients.
Together, with purpose-driven leadership development professionals we co-create a new leadership development market for human-centered leadership development to humanise transformation by integrating the potential and benefits of modern “change” and leadership frameworks, theories and models.
We are here to consolidate worlds not to polarise or play down the importance for structure, analytical, the scalable and profitable, systems, digital and tech. Connecting the best of all worlds is another unique factor of HOST. As the Yves Morieux claims “hard”- and “soft” skills are absolute.
Agile and personalised ways of work
HOST stimulates innovative ways in how we lead, work, learn and develop (educate/train). It provides a springboard for more leadership development innovation, to be applied in agile and personalized ways that leverages the strength of the practitioner and meets the emerging) needs of its work environment. HOST stimulates lifelong “Leadership and Development” to unlock the number 1 by organisations requesting 21st century soft-skill development namely: collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and creativity, in the workplace.
Fostering a culture for transformation and lifelong learning
Through the blended ways in how HOST is applicable, we stimulate a work culture for lifelong learning, where every employee gets stimulated to continuously learn and develop new skills and is self-motivated to do so. HOST provides a toolkit for leadership development professionals that gives guidance on how to host ongoing transformation, learning and development, to help global leaders, teams, and organisations to be(come) more agile and adapt in a fast-changing world.
Shared discourse for transformation
Teaming up in co-creating and sharing a global discourse about the urgencies to make work change make change work, enables us to create more momentum to work with global leaders, influencers and decision makers, joining our team to make a difference in how we work, lead, and educate.
Mastering HOST through raising consciousness
The HOST “framework” is easy to understand, however, it takes “flying-hours” and “heart” work to integrate and live the principles in your daily (work) life. First it takes personal awareness, “self-work” being empowered yourself, before you can help other people grow their personal awareness and contribute to collective consciousness of your (work) environment. In other words, personal development and leadership, to move beyond your “limiting beliefs”, fear, judgements and scepticism, is the engine for ongoing transformation.
5. Uses of HOST
On a daily basis, we learn from practitioners on how to apply HOST in new ways. This makes HOST a social technology, a “means-to-and-end,” and not an end goal. As technology, business, and the world as a whole are changing rapidly, modern leadership development frameworks and strategies should operate as a frontrunner; ahead of tomorrow’s trends.
As of today, HOST practitioners integrate the HOST principles, practices, designs and strategies in various ways and for various objectives and with different means across industries and (work)cultures. We harvest case-stories that give you more context about the possibilities of application.
Intervention-, Training-, Coaching-, Facilitation, and Strategy Designs:
- HR Consultancy 4.0
- Executive coaching, personal leadership development
- Process, product, and business innovation
- Agile Leadership Development
- Self-improving and -organising teams/team development
- Dialogue-, co-creation-, creativity-, design thinking-, strategy-, multi-stakeholder decision-making
- Learning organisation, Transformational Learning, Change management
- Intra- and In-company Network Development
- Intercultural collaboration
- Innovating meetings
Delivered as blended transformational learning journeys, that fosters lifelong education.
Humanising and Transforming Industries:
HOST is a social technology that helps people connect with themselves and each other to make change work and help leaders, teams and organisations transform, lead and thrive in a fast changing and digital world.
In essence every industry across the globe is challenged by similar conditions; e.g. slinking business life-cycles, difficulties to attract high-level talent eager to work with more purpose, in more (location) independent ways, while co-creating new organisation structures, business models and products to serve the emerging needs of their customers. Below we highlight 6 samples of industries where HOST certified (master) practitioners contribute to human-centered leadership to create a culture for transformation that fosters (mental) wellbeing, ongoing innovation and intercultural- inclusive collaboration for leaders, teams and organisations to transform, lead and thrive in a fast changing world.
- Participative Adult Education over Classroom Education
Learn by doing-, experiential learning, entrepreneurial and job creation-skill over passive and linear learning.
- Health Care over Sick Care
Patient-oriented and (mental) illness prevention over curing.
- Human Resource Management: Role- and Skill Development over Job profiling
Organisational-, Leadership-, Learning-, Talent-, People- and Team Development.
- Finance: Decentralisation vs Centralisation
Agile organisational and leadership development.
- Hospitality: Transformation over Commodities
Service- and user-experience innovation design.
6. HOST Values
Six core values for human-centered leadership development for leaders and leadership development professionals to incorporate into their leadership style, practices or designs to help leaders, teams, communities, organisations, and societies transform, lead, and thrive.
What is your intention, why is unlocking the potential, driving transformation, to make work, education or leadership change, so important? Why do you do what you do? What is your transformational “case”? This has to be authentic, clear and connected to the values and business objectives of your client/ the organisation.
Can you be in the here and now? Provide full attention to the (emerging) needs of the work environment you operate in. Tap into collective consciousness and channel the universal information you naturally get “provided.”
There to make your “obsolete” by empowering your participants or team members to feel challenged and encouraged they can do the work themselves.
Holding a safe space is key to create the encouraging conditions to experiment and “fail” to openly share ideas, to be vulnerable about their own doubts or fears, or to ask for support. Enable people to stretch their comfort zone by creating a humble space. We are all human and in the core all need the same basics to survive; which is mental, physical, and social wellbeing through love, recognition and significance/ meaning.
Stay inclusive of new perspectives, complementary skills, work, study and ethnic background, gender and sexual orientation. Create equity, an equal level playing field when it comes to respect, despite someone’s job profile or role. True learning happens when you learn that you didn’t know you didn’t know. Move beyond your unconscious bias, and stay curious by embracing diversity.
Whatever individual, team, community or organisation you empower, human resources – knowledge, networks or skills – should always complement each other: 1 + 1 = 11. Connectivity and synergy are the glue of a team or company to pivot in the moment, overcome unexpected events and to lead in new markets.
7. HOST Roles
Being a “HOST” means you are continuously learning and developing complementary skills and practices that enables you to host transformations beyond silos, departments, teams and organisational walls. This requires you to become a “Multi-skilled Leadership Development Professional 4.0.”
As human resource (HR), organisational- and leadership development (OD and LD) consultant you understand the bigger picture of how organisations are designed and how interpersonal human-processes foster a human-centered culture for transformation. To give strategic advice on topics like HR, buy-in, community building, employee engagement, turn-over, retention and absenteeism. And when co-creating a strategic leadership development plan it to be in line with the organisations vision, values and business objectives that has clear learning objectives to be met by impactful and modern learning activities that are applicable in the daily work environment and lead to measurable people-business-societal results.
To give clear instructions while refraining from interventions to keep the process a learning experience for its participants while it leads to fruitful result.
How to unlock the potential within formal and informal leaders, teams and organisations to be(come) a better version of themselves, to transform, lead and thrive?
Tech people by helping them to create new knowledge through interactive sessions, blended learning, vary in teaching methods to include all learning styles such as; the doer (experiencing, doing it), thinker (understanding and analysing), dreamer (observing and discovering) and the decider (applying and deciding).
Engage your audience with your content through transformational experiences.
Train (the-train) professionals to adopt a new skill-set, like the HOST practices, for them to replicate and translate into their own work background. Facilitate your participants through all learning stages: unconscious incompetent, conscious incompetent, conscious competent and unconscious competent.
HOST Intervention Designer
Know how to prepare an intervention, session, workshop or program curriculum that includes clear learning objectives to modern learning activities that are applicable in the daily work environment and lead to measurable people-business-societal results.
Let go of control, instead, nourishing a safe and supportive environment. To have a clear and hands-on vision to inspire people with while they leave room for people to show up as their best selves to get the job done. Providing the team the resources and skills and trust the process for them to come up with best solutions for the accurate problem, themselves. Not to create followers but leaders.
8. HOST Practices
Unlock a human-centered culture for transformation by applying this “plug&play” design. This design is tested across industries and (work) cultures and practiced by HOST certified practitioners and HOST associates around the globe.
Human Energy | Check-in
The easiest way to unlock the potential within others and raise personal awareness and collective consciousness, is when you ask a power question like “how do you feel” it’s a way more caring question and its answer has way more quality than the obvious question “how are you”. The biggest scarcity in today’s society is to receive true “attention.” Through this “intervention” (applicable anytime, anywhere!), you immediately practice true leadership through attentive listening. Remember: just listen, you don’t have to DO anything with what people share. No answers asked or needed.
Frame to Transform
Three main global trends that urges us to redesign and humanise leadership development to make-work-change and make-change-work. – text and video are pending –
Shared Resources | Wave Analysis of Norms
Ideal practice when you like to stretch people’s perspectives about people’s perception about what are modern, normalised and outdated leadership-, learning and development (education) and/or ways of work. This is especially interesting when you apply this practices for multi-disciplinary teams or during multi-stakeholder strategy sessions. It helps people to think out of the box and adopt a solution and future-focus.
Human Energy | Colliding Brains
This is one of the most impactful practices we know which simply works to raise personal awareness about our unconscious that determines 95% of our behavior. It gives people a practical experience of how the brain works and how our society is still merely focused in developing our brain and skills in one-dimensional ways. Is this still tenable in our fast-changing world? It’s an extra-ordinary experience that resonates on may levels; brain, people, teams, organisations, and societies.
Openess to Engage | Flow & Staggering
Based on the former practice “Colliding brains” we provide your participants a deeper experience by asking powerful questions, blending in the Eddie Obeng case, and create a dialogue where people learn from each other in exponential ways. What will they do with this new awareness, how will your participants become more “agile” and integrate in their daily work? It’s always surprising to see people are their own “guru” and carry most of their own answers. You only have to “unlock it!”
Art of Reflection | Making the invisible visible
“It’s all about the reflection!” is another “mantra” you’ll hear us say (and repeat). Especially in a world that overloads us with information, the most important navigator to find your own truths and answers is to go “inward” and reflect. You will do your participants/work environment a huge favor when you invite them to be still for a moment, take a break from all the input from outside, and reflect for a moment.
Human Energy | Following & Leading
An amazing practice to raise the energy in the room, get people out of their thinking and connected with one another. This practice has many layers; you can shake people up and create joy, laughter and flow, or you can take it to the next level, and open up a dialogue about your natural tendency in leadership; to feel more comfortable following, leading or altering the two.
Sharing Resources | How Can I Help You?
It’s all about simplicity. If we’re not used to asking for help why not ask others how you can be of value to them? The paradox here is; you help yourself by helping others. This is because, if your intentions are real, you get to know how you can be of true value to people (often by something that comes easy to you and is your blind spot) and build yourself a support network of trustworthy people. Here’s a sample of an exercise on how you can unlock the culture for “support” a culture for lifelong learning, through a simple practice.
Sharing Resources | Positive Gossiping
A very heart opening and empowering practice. As human beings we are often pretty hard on ourselves and others. Judgments and scepticism, often based on unconscious bias, “fear”, can rule our day and determination whether we are building relationships and creating sustainable outcome or not.
Reflect to Transform | Get Agile Reflection Framework
Visuals can be louder than words. Our vocabulary is not ‘always’ equipped to express what we really feel or, to express our deeper needs in a constructive way, such that it will lead to desired outcome: which is authenticity, mutual acknowledgement and recognition.
As we’re all human and, in the basics, wired in the same way: we all long for the sense of recognition, worthiness and connectivity with ourselves and others.
Transformation | Talking Stick
Wrapping up the session with the group, with having everyone to say what ever is on top of their mind; their next steps, their appreciation about themselves or others. Whoever has the stick has the space and time to share. As a host, always check if the expectations are met that you’ve written on the flip chart at the beginning of the session.
9. HOST Meta Skills
Knowing what transformational practices there are out there is only one side of the spectrum equipping yourself to help people, teams, organisations and societies to transform, lead, and thrive. The other side of the spectrum is your own personal leadership and agility of being equipped to work with any circumstance and provide your participants a 5-star experience by adopting so-called skills that enables you to scale your people, business, and societal impact. This requires dedication and so-called “flying” hours, with you coaching a range of people from all walks of life. We distinguish six meta-skills to level-up your impact through; attitude-, design, frame-, reflect-, strategy- and stories to transform.
ATTITUDE TO TRANSFORM
If you’re not taking responsibility for your state of consciousness, you are not taking responsibility for your life (Eckhart Tolle).
As a leader, a host-to-transform practitioner, your most important asset is your attitude (mindset and behavior). You may have obtained most advanced certifications in the world, but when your mindset is not in the right place, you’ll not be able to unlock the potential or synergy amongst people; the magic that makes change from the inside-out and transformation possible. It makes everything you do a unique experience for your participants, brings so much more purpose, excitement and meaning in your work!
Personal Awareness Moving beyond Unconscious Bias (inner purpose)
It might be an open-door to mention that you as a leadership-, learning and development coach, trainer, facilitator, consultant, designer or leader are mirroring for the people you’re about to empower; to perform better as an organisation, team or as an individual. If you’re in “lead” and hold on to limiting beliefs, and are not conscious of that, you might project your fears, judgments and scepticism, on the people you aim to serve. In other words, a deep dive into yourself, to discover who you are, the good and the bad, peeling off your layers of “protection,” also called your bias based on past events. Adopting a supportive and conscious mindset that is aware of its temptation to think and being able to bend it to another direction will prevent you from your blind spots which becomes self-fulfilling and will take over leading your life and outcome.
Your inner purpose is awakening. To be conscious of the here and now, and to see more that is visible for the eye. To feel energies of others and to be able to tap into collective wisdom; to channel through information that you never got from a book.
This brings you in a “flow” state when your inner and outer purpose is aligned. It makes participants say things like “you live what you do” “amazing energy” “it feels like home” “from the start we feel so connected, it makes it easy for me to leave my comfort zone” “this flow is contagious!” or “this is your true calling”! This is the feedback you get when you’re doing your inner work and simply feel what is needed, where your needs end, and that of the group start.
Transformational Purpose (outer purpose)
Having a clear purpose about why you do what you do, what the change is you’d like to see in the world and contribute to. Also called your “transformational purpose” and might change in its form over time, however, not in its essence. For example, if your calling is to connect people with themselves and each other, you might do this today as a coach, but in the future, you might do this as a musician.
Connecting your transformation purpose with the business objective of your client makes your work way more easy, joyful and impactful! What you do will no longer be about “getting the job done” but will be about the energy you bring and the people you attract with that. This is your tribe, the people you can work with best. So being you is always the best option to live a happy life and to deliver high-end value for your clients, students, participants or peers. Being fully yourself enables you to share your anecdotes to help frame the context. Ideal for people to become more familiar with you, your work and the impact you make (as it brings credibility).
Safe space beats knowledge
Even when you frame really well, or you’re a Ph.D. professor, Einstein for that matter, your knowledge can’t create a “safe space” for people to experiment, learn and develop, or lead, to obtain new perspectives and gain new insights.
Egos in the Equation
Sometimes people can get caught up in their egos and designated roles and use that as a tool to cover up their fears, anxiety or feelings of uncertainty. 9 out of 10 this is an unconscious process, a blind spot of someone, or to bend it more positively: an opportunity for someone to grow. It can come to the service as reacting in angry, offensive or defensive (fight or flight mode).
When this happens, always be kind and gentle – as how you would act to someone in pain. At the same time, stay curious and as objective as possible. Ask open qualitative questions, “Is what you say true“, “what makes you say that”, “do others share that idea?”. When you work with a group of people or teams, and you feel there is ego in the equation, do something surprising, incorporate a moment of guided meditation, mindfulness or yoga. For them to connect with more kindness and compassion to themselves and others. For them to feel more at ease and connect from a space of equality, “equal level playing field.”
- Is your energy balanced? Meditate before the session start, create yourself a safe space and make it your space.
- Do you feel an abundance of energy
- Are you looking forward to the session, if not, what can help you? Can you anchor a small ritual for you to always feel ignited when you do or think about this? (listening to your favorite music or visualise).
- How is the energy and attitude of the group? Is there ego in the equation that impacts the “safe space?” Do you need to tweak your design/program to make it safe?
DESIGN TO TRANSFORM
“Design” is a frequently used terminology and often used in the “design thinking” context. For you to think in designs means that you create a minimum structure wherein people have the freedom to be self-exploratory and self-improving to come up with own “ingredients” and solutions for their perceived problems. Most common design concepts are; intervention-, human-, lifestyle-, program, educational-, product-, service-, user-experience-, organisational- and business design. Nowadays you even hear about societal design, and due to advanced technology, we have access to big data that, for the first time in history, enables us to approach societies’ problems, such as climate change, plastic waste, deforestation and food scarcity on a global scale.
You can compare design with the architecture of whatever you want to build in life. We help leaders to design and live their transformative purpose-driven life by focusing and leveraging their talent/strengths, passion, values, and mission, to align it with their organisations’ objectives and to make their purpose transparent for everyone to work with and translate into their own work context. We help business owners design their purpose-driven lifestyle around their business, to generate more people, business, and societal impact.
In this HOST Guide, we mainly refer to leadership development intervention design, design of interventions, workshops, sessions, program curriculum or organisational strategy.
Flip the script and tap into emerging needs
A design is merely a “script” for you to bounce ideas off in the moment. If you are a transformational coach, trainer, educator orleader, and you dare to be intuitive, you only use 20% of the design and the rest is based on your intuition. This makes preparation key. If you prepare well and fast forward your thinking in the possible scenarios that could occur, you’re ahead of the crowd. Stay open and curious and tap into the emerging needs of your participants, you will create an experience that moves beyond their expectations
In your work try to balance theory – experience – reflection – implementation, as they all require a different energy and focus. When you work with analytical – scientists and techies – oriented professionals, you’ll need more “framing” theory, to provide the minimum structure that keeps them in the “learning-zone” instead of the “panic zone.” Making very analytical professionals participate in a dance practice, can be challenging, however; you should properly explain why movement is important for the objective of this leadership development training, like it creates new neural paths and enables you to think from a place of flow, without force.
In reverse, if you train the trainers, or work with creative professionals, they can perceive too much theory (framing) as “talking heads,” they are more of the doers and used to experiment with new practices that take them out of their comfort zone. Also, instead of theory, they might appreciate you providing them more of anecdotes, instead of statistics.
Political and cultural constraints are also important to keep in the back of your mind. If you host a multi-
governance session, it could be, regardless your skills to host a safe, supportive and learning space, that
employees wouldn’t speak up when their manager, or CEO, is in the room. In countries where
employees are way more dependent on “the system” through their job; like mortgage, health care, and
pension system is paid through their work. For example in the US the stakes are way higher if employees
openly express themselves in front of their boss, than in the Netherlands, where we are used to flat
organisation structures and, overall, people treat themselves as equal, regardless of their status.
When you have mastered the HOST values, practices, meta-skills, and strategies in theory, you should be able to unlock transformation anytime, anywhere. However, if you have externalities, practicalities, you have control over, this could work in your favour big time.
- Where do you position yourself, physically, in the space. Do you sit with the others, do you place yourself on a stage? We recommend you to always sit in a circle, on the same heights as the group, and set the “tone” for equal level playing field despite the differences in power relations.
- Open space in the room:
- possibility for participants to move freely
Possibility to sit
- Program agenda on flip-over
- Natural lighting
- Good temperature; not too warm or cold
- Little noise
- Singing bowl: a welcoming sound that naturally gets people’s attention and resonates.
- Music: during breaks or exercises. Music can flip the energy at once!
- Lightning, windows
- “A man’s heart is through his stomach.” Make sure there’s sufficient and nutritious food and water that naturally keeps up the energy (instead only through caffeine).
- What time of the day do you start? Morning? After lunch
- Group size
- Allocation; multi-governance; managers amongst its team? Boardroom staff? Equal level playing field?
FRAME TO TRANSFORM
It’s all about the framing and the reflection, not about applying the “perfect” change- or leadership practices, interventions or design. You can provide experienced trainers and educators with the same design, the outcome however, can be entirely different.
Moving beyond complexity by creating clarity and focus
Help people to connect the dots for themselves, and as long as it makes sense to them, they will use the information and learnings. Co-create a discourse that contributes to the culture of the organisation.
Learning and growth
People learn best when they intrinsically feel the need to obtain new knowledge or an experience, that brings them to the next level. When you invite the more timid and analytical crowd to act in new ways in front of their team (e.g. jumping up and down) you will introduce him/her directly to the panic zone, not feeling eager to do anything – having a critical mind full of questions marks brings them into “fight” or flight” mode that leads to judgment and resistance. This is what you’d like to prevent.Professionals working in a more hierarchical, high demanding and performance driven environment, often need more framing than people working in a creative more flat structures, where they practice shared leadership on a frequent basis and dare to do before they think.
Short Checklist, ways to frame:
- Theories, models, statistics, and studies (video, reads)
- Global trends: the urgency for change; get buy-in and engage your environment by sharing this call to action. Check the Global Trend Report.
- Anecdotes and stories of your or others’ experiences; keep it personal and vibrant!
- Power questions to create a shared understanding of complex topics, controversial topics or vague jargon.
- Flipping the classroom: movies, articles, and TED Talks.
Short Checklist, when to frame:
- Beginning of an “intervention” (a practices, exercise, simulation, workshop, the launch of a project, meeting, etc.).
- When people lose focus; don’t leave them swimming In the unknown for too long, curiosity might flip into irritation.
- When there is very little knowledge about a new topic.
- When the interaction is more outgoing, EQ-driven (e.g. when you invite people to talk about their feelings
and experience) and extravert.
- If you haven’t framed at the beginning, at the end of your intervention.
The art of reflection
Enables you to give your participants a unique experience that is tailored, personalised to their own (emerging) needs. Apply various reflection techniques and gear in the moment, is an art and to have the sensitivity what “the room” or a person need, is not something you can get out of the books and often is often what you are gifted with. If you’re sensitive to other people’s energies, emotions and moods, this could be flipped into your strength once you know how you can positively influence the atmosphere.
Moving beyond unconscious bias
When adopting various reflection techniques, you will be able to make the invisible visible through, for example, visualisation techniques, power questions or futuristic images that trigger questions, emerging knowledge, strategies, needs or common understanding. You’re equipped to unlock change from the inside-out and intrinsically motivate people to make steps into the uncertain and see, create, and seize new opportunities.
Shortlist, Power Questions:
- How do you feel?
- What are you grateful for right now?
- What do you appreciate about your team, right now?
- What did you experience
- What can you do with it?
- What will you do with it?
- What do you need to make it happen?
- What is your time-frame? (SMART)
- How come that is blocking you? How come? Why is that?
- Is that what you say is true?
- Why do do you say that? How come?
- What is [definition you like to explore] to you? Examples?
Short Checklist, Ways to reflect:
- Duos, groups, teams, communities, plenary, break-out sessions.
- Online and/or offline
- Draw, journaling and writing
- Meditation (presence)
- Visualising (future)
- Visuals/images (card games, banners)
- Power questions
- 360 degrees feedback
- Insights, what they will do with it and before when (SMART)
STRATEGY TO TRANSFORM
Once you know how to unlock the potential within leaders, teams, organisations, and societies and you have internalised the HOST practices to do so, it is key to understand how to grow, or even scale, your impact in exponential ways. You need consultancy and strategy meta-skills that enable you to do so.
Short Checklist, hands-on strategies to grow or scale your leadership development impact:
- Make sure you have buy-in from the decision makers for them to open doors, get access to budget or inspire their teams and employees for change.
- Get 5 influential leaders in the organisation to champion your strategic plan. Create a steering committee to help co-design and champion the project.
- Build a strategic relationship with influences, top management CEOs and other gatekeepers.
- Work with people from inside and outside the organisation to keep your objectivity and continuity
- Create employee engagement, community building participated by early adopters, to co-create a culture for ongoing transformation from the inside-out.
- Co-create a leadership development strategic plan that aligns with the organisation’s vision, values and strategic objectives
- Create clear learning objectives to be met by impactful learning activities that are applicable in the daily work environment and lead to measurable results.
- How will you know when you’re successful, how to measure your success?
- Make sure you operate in win-win-win-win’s ways, with all key stakeholders – employees, users, shareholders, leadership team.
- When to work with internal staff: there is a limited budget, and they know the company’s culture.
- When to work with external staff:
⁃ for more objectivity (a third eye in your work)
⁃ bring in most up-to-date methods, bring in highest quality materials
⁃ Benchmark to other companies and know the trends and best practices
⁃ When the stakes are high, CEOs can’t risk to mess up a project, better to outsource it to someone
- Working with an external and internal team, side-by-side can be supportive and powerful
- Apply a continuous feedback loop; it’s never done!
- Who are the key organizational players in your leadership development program, workshop, and intervention?
- Co-design with key players, including decision makers and influencers to gain buy-in
- What kind of interventions are needed? Who do you need to bring in? What kind of practices (see the
HOST practices get some ideas).
- Research, data or basic-information about the “diagnose” of the company?
⁃ Its history
⁃ Project details (why did they start this program? Why did they hire you?
⁃ Annual reports (stockholders)
⁃ Company strategy, mission, goals, and value
⁃ Culture survey results
⁃ Other training and development programs.
- Continuous feedback loop pre-during-post interventions
- Strategic model or structure to develop your leaders (a roadmap where to go)
- Create a learning and business metrics, that includes measurable outcome that aligns with the organisations KPI’s.
STORIES TO TRANSFORM
Storytelling used to be a ritual we’ve been doing since ancient times. As long as there will be human-beings, storytelling is an important factor for people to connect and create a shared understanding. It’s an anthropological, ethnographic method of gathering and passing through information in a way it sticks and is easy to copy and share with others.
In HR, management and organisational consultancy, you often see procurement get carried away by the immense amount of reports and the demand to make everything quantifiable and measurable in linear metrics ways. We champion the power of “measure-to-spread-and-scale-impact.”
Today, we’re living in a world of information overload. The more reason to share information in ways it connects people with themselves and their environment. To facilitate storytelling through “power questions” in ways it empowers the interviewee and enables them to tap into their wisdom for them to share their experience working with you while experiencing the HOST practices.
Visibility beyond organisational walls
What happens in most traditional leadership-, learning and development programs, is that the stories of the impact of the session remain between the organisational walls. It’s not always easy to explain what people can expect from a transformational session or intervention; therefore, it’s way more powerful when this gets shared word-of-mouth by your participants that connect it to their context themselves. Stories to Transform sessions serve you and/or your company on multiple levels, it’s an;
a) Unique tool for authentic, ongoing feedback: it’s real-time feedback: what do your participants mostly appreciate and highlight based on your session/ intervention?
b) Unique reflection tool: it enables the interviewee to deeply reflect and “connect-the-dots” based on what they have experienced. This transformational storytelling experience is very personal and in essence a coaching session in itself. If you do this well, people will be grateful joining your “Stories to Transform” session!
c) Authentic-free publicity and building credibility: Generating credibility with the world. For people in your inner and outer circles to better understand the impact of your sessions. For them to connect the dots and join your sessions and/or refer their network to your sessions — a way to generate more visibility. If you work for a company, this is “free” promotion on the topics of human-centered leadership, wellbeing, and interconnectedness of your organisation (how well people are connected with themselves and others).
d) Tool for empowerment: people connect with people when they can relate to stories and empathise with one another. Sharing your Stories to Transform with the world empowers others to get into action and transform, lead, and thrive in their lives.
Make sure your impact is shared; otherwise you’re not increasing your circle of influence, which is essential in your work as an leader, influencer, host-to-transform practitioner, and leadership development professional.
Shortlist, transformational power questions to ask your clients or participants:
- Who are you, what is the change you’d like to see and contribute to? (why do you do what you do?)
- Why did you join this session?
- What did you experience that was unique/different to other trainings you’ve joined before?
- What can you do with the HOST practices?
- Why are the HOST practices especially relevant in this age?
- To whom would you recommend these sessions? What would it contribute to (make sure you have your tribe answering this question; otherwise your impact gets connected to an audience that is not the ideal target audience you like to serve).
- Where could you see HOST to be in 10 years from now?
- What did you find remarkable about the HOST (trainer, facilitator, consultant, coach)?
- How would you describe the session with one or two words?
- Is there anything you would love to share I haven’t asked?
- In-person with professional video recording or recording by smartphone
- Online video-call
- Testimonial Linkedin, email or in questionnaires
We try to get harvest videos/vlogs, as you can always extract testimonials from there. It’s more personal when people can see a face and relate to someone, rather than its just text.
10. HOST Master Certification Sample Design
Here you can download the design we use for our in-person master practitioners certification programs in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and New York City (US).
Download the Design << here >> [pending]
More Plug&Play On-the-go HOST Designs we share in the HOST DesignToolkit.
11. HOST Reflection Frameworks
Visuals speak louder than words, make the invisible visible. Here we share our most used visuals for our interventions, workshops and programs. For our banners, to help people reflect and change from the inside-out and learn from each other’s unique ways of reflecting.
12. HOST Case Stories to Transform
What forward-thinking leaders, change consultants and leadership-, organisational-, learning and development professionals say about HOST.
“With Host2Transform Jessica has developed and brought together very interesting change approaches and tools that are very useful for different target groups like managers, trainers, facilitators, consultants and coaches. They can apply these tools in flexible ways in their own practice. The international oriented business and people approach is making H2T an attractive partner for all your change programs. Jessica and her colleagues from all over the globe are wonderful guides in these programs and a great source of inspiration.
I appreciate very much the intense and passionate style of Jessica. Her way of working is making a lot of positive personal impact on people. It supports effectively the transformation of the people participating in her programs to a next level. Jessica knows how to create personal experiences that really help you to grow.”
Marjolein Maree, HOST Expert Board Member. Global Management consultant, facilitator, trainer and executive coach. Over 20 years’ experience in global leadership program design for large corporates.
“I find it amazing, the HOST exercises, to watch all the videos and to learn about all the different exercises. They have a tremendous impact on the groups I work with. I found it a very easy coordination to select exercises to embrace my topic (Power of Vulnerability in Corporates). I feel really excited about picking another topic, and I can choose another selection of exercises and it would be equally great. I think everyone new to HOST should really do that, to understand what Host2Transform actually means and what it’s capable of. I think the best thing of HOST is the infinite information and possibility.
HOST has been an amazing launching path to build my own training company and create In-company programs. The practices enables me to get in touch with my own vulnerability that invites others to open up as well. The toolkit creates infinite possibilities. Its impact has a ripple effect and has definitely the potential to become “a new yoga!”
What I love about providing HOST sessions is the amazing energy and the visible transformation that takes place during the sessions. The reason I joined HOST is that it’s a terrific platform for change and inspiration with a fully-loaded toolkit and like-minded motivational people. My purpose is to help people embrace their vulnerability as a way to unlock their true potential.”
Marcelle Barges-Jans, Corporate Consultant & Trainer. Learning and Development. Motivational workshop Facilitator. Transforming the Corporate Culture. HOST Certified Practitioner & Trainer.
After 10 years working as a leader in corporate life, Marcelle decided to turn the tables and to do what she wanted most which is helping leaders to transform the corporate culture by inspiring leaders and teams of the benefits of expressing their vulnerability as a tool for interpersonal empowerment and authentic leadership.
She joined Host2Transform in 2017 and is continuously learning and developing to up-skill herself as a freelance consultant and trainer to influence more leaders while she is working on her independent program “Power of Vulnerability.”
“What I love about providing HOST sessions is the spontaneous way participants take on a positive attitude which makes them more flexible and supporting to their team. Next to that Host2Transform continues where traditional training programs stop and go the extra mile to empower leaders to move beyond their unconscious bias and transform themselves, their team and organisation to thrive and lead in a fast-changing, and digital world.
The reason I partner up with H2T is that I want to work with like-minded people to create a positive impact on sustainable decision making capacities and innovativeness. Which embraces individual and collective wellbeing. My purpose is to create flourishing organisations with a culture of growth mindset and an atmosphere of collaboration and trust.”
Adda van Zanden, Executive Coach at Center for Evolutionary Learning, Brain Facilitator at LEF Future center, Global Speaker, Inclusive Organisations advocate. HOST Certified Practitioner, Trainer & Associate.
Adda has an extra-ordinary background in combining her talent as an actress, she co-founded Shakespeare for Women, and brings in the power for inclusion and creativity in the tech and corporate world.
As a HOST certified trainer and associate, she trains in wellbeing, creative mindset and self-organisation for tech teams at large corporates in the Netherlands.
“Working with the HOST concept and the toolkit was a true revelation. What I thought would be a set of soft exercises turned out to be simple, down-to-earth and highly impactful. Very useful for a corporate environment. The available exercises do not only make you smile, but more importantly generate valuable insights in the efforts required to transform yourself and your teams. A simple 5 minute exercise reconfirmed the essence of connecting the mind and the body, while another one showed the importance of trust in yourself and in others and from others when you want to lead.
HOST helps Agile leaders and coaches to empower, learn and let go and provides tools to establish sustainable and trusted teams from a cross-disciplinary group of professionals.”
Dick Rüger, Executive Coach. Leadership Agility Consultant.
Agile Transformer and Facilitator. HOST Certified Practitioner & Executive Coach.
Dick has a wide intercultural background in the financial corporate sector, e.g. setting up ING Russia. Today he is active in executive coaching of talented middle- and higher management women taking their next career step in- or outside the company. To dare to change! Next to that, he trains agile teams and advices HR on agile leadership development coaching.
“I found the exercises of Host2Transform very helpful to create an open space to co-create. The online community platform supports me as facilitator by giving examples in videos, inspiration and suggestions by Jessica and other community members.
I love to work with HOST because it creates the conditions for co-creation and transformation in no time! I partner with H2T to increase my impact and build on the broad experience and expertise of the H2T team. My purpose is to empower people to be the best version of themselves, mostly within Health care and Tech.”
John Schmeitz, Consultant Digital Transformation, Transforming Leadership.
HOST Certified Practitioner.
John brings a human face to technology through his servant leadership style as an interim project leader and consultant in health care and digital transformation.
He has integrated the HOST practices in his daily work and unlock leadership within his work environment, listens and asks powerful questions, makes people feel at home, and creates a supportive work culture where people feel appreciated and can share their ideas, brilliant mistakes and best practices.
“It’s a Treasure Chest to put the individual at the center. It’s a creative & powerful source of inspiration for fresh & energetic education. In every class I teach or training I provide, I add a little ‘Host to Transform.”
Initiator of the Head-Hand-Heart Train-the-Teacher program at the Applied University of Science in Arnhem (HAN). Educator & Coach Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Certified HOST Practitioner. Transforming Education
Sylvia has the mission to empower her colleague lectures at the HAN and to make (business) education more human-centered. By placing the student in the center and let them create their own learning curve and experience with the guidance they need to be able to do it themselves.
“I’m interested in exploring different ways for transformation in HR. Host2Transform is one of my favourites as well as U.lab (Theory U), organisation constellations and many others. Thanks to Host2Transform, I’m equipped to give my clients the option to approach my HR services in a transformative or traditional HR way.
Thanks to HOST, I can advise organisations in a traditional HR style or in a transformational HR style. It’s not a matter of a “role,” this is the way I truly believe transformation works.”
Ellis Haring, Independent HR Consultant and Interim Manager,
Transforming Human Resource Management. HOST Certified Practitioner.
Ellis has an elaborate background in transformational HR management, workshop facilitation, and coaching.
She’s an early adopter of HOST who never shies away for an experiment, and is an advocate of the HOST practices.
13. What is Next?
Sign the HOST Manifesto and inspire the world to humanise leadership development to help people connect with themselves and others to unlock their potential and create the conditions make change work.
Adopt your HOST (Master) Practitioner Certification to unlock the potential,
anytime and anywhere. With ease, joy and scalable people, business and societal impact.
Join the Host2Transform for its unique and fresh global executive coaching-, H2T global leadership development and organisational development- and the future of entrepreneurship program joined by forward thinking leaders and leadership- organisational development professionals and entrepreneurs. Cutting-edge world-class personalised group coaching, serendipitous connective networking and masterclasses on complementary modern change frameworks to make work change and make change work.
14. End Note
HOST is free and offered in this Guide. HOST’s 20 human-centered leadership principles, 6 HOST values, 8 -roles, -practices and -meta-skills are immutable and although implementing only parts of HOST is possible, the result is not HOST. HOST exists only in its entirety and functions well as a container for other techniques, methodologies, and practices.
As we unlock the potential within individuals, teams, organisations and societies across the globe, we embrace the ‘rules’ of the new economy, which is all about transparency, creating true added value and to have a bigger purpose than that merely fulfill oneself. To work in meaningful ways and empower complementary markets and (the not lucky
1%) people around you through the one-for-one model.
In short, the profit HOST generates benefits a whole social business ecosystem, in order to create a new market to enable anyone to empower others, anytime and anywhere.
Over the course of 7 years, hundreds of people have contributed to HOST. It all started with Jessica Tangelder collaborating with a HOST community of practitioners, main contributors are John Schmeitz, Ellis Haring and Adda van Zanden, who provided continuous feedback and then, the HOST Board, Marjolein Maree, Dick Rüger, Erik-Jan ten Broeke, Rebecca Sampson and Peter Taks, who always keep a third eye on the HOST manifesto and guide to make sure the concept remains embodied. Many other contributors in the ensuing years and without their help, HOST would not be so refined and accessible as it is today.
Our Story & DNA
Jessica Tangelder and the HOST Board are continuously refining the HOST guide to be developed, evolved, and sustained. The first concept of HOST Manifesto and Guide got published on December 2018. The HOST developments and validation of the practices happened started since 2012 and have never stopped ever since. You can find The history of HOST you can find here: https://www.host2transform.com/about-us/
Other sources provided, blog stories by HOST practitioners about the implementation, complement one and the HOST framework. These may increase productivity, value, creativity, and satisfaction with the results.